Systematic reviews of prognostic studies II: Assessing bias in studies of prognostic factors using the QUIPS tool

Tags: Workshop
Moons C1, Hooft L2, Hayden J3
1PhD, 2Cochrane Netherlands, 3Community Health and Epidemiology, Dalhousie University

Objectives: The QUality In Prognosis Studies (QUIPS) tool is useful and reliable to assess risk of bias in studies of prognostic factors. This workshop will introduce participants to paper and MS Excel versions of the QUIPS tool. We will discuss the development of the tool, and participate in exercises to apply and interpret the tool.

Description: Prognosis is a description of the probable course of individuals with a health condition. Important to prognosis is consideration of factors that are associated with or determine the course of the health condition. Critical appraisal of prognostic studies is challenging, but essential to assess and identify biases sufficiently large to distort study results.

The QUIPS tool supports a systematic appraisal of bias in studies of prognostic factors. It is based on recommendations from a comprehensive review of critical appraisal in prognosis reviews and is informed by epidemiologic principles. Versions of the tool have been successfully used by several research groups with moderate/substantial interrater reliability. Six important areas to evaluate validity prognostic factor studies are considered: participation, attrition, prognostic factor measurement, confounding measurement and account, outcome measurement, and analysis and reporting; the tool includes prompting items related to these six areas with suggestions for operationalization and grading. Participants will gain understanding and experience using the tool.